In some Christian doctrines, a fallen angel is an angel
that has been exiled or banished from Heaven [fallen being
a a metaphor for "cast out" or ostracized. Not
literally meaning the angels fell! ] . Often such banishment
is a punishment for disobeying or rebelling against God.
One early source for information on angelology and demonology
is the Persian prophet Zoroaster. The best-known fallen
angel is Lucifer. Lucifer rebelled and was cast out of Heaven
and fell to Earth for his offense. According to some traditions,
fallen angels will roam the Earth until Judgment Day, when
they will be banished to Hell.
[According to Revelation 12, the rebel host aggregated one-third
of the angels in heaven. They fell for 9 days. Their number
was estimated in the 15th century to have been 133,306,668
(the tabulation of Cardinal Bishop of Tusculum). ]
of the term
The origin of the term lies in the
Hebrew word for "giant". The Hebrew word translated
as "giants" here is Nephilim,
a plural, which itself derives from the root word Naphal,
which means to fall. The apocryphal Book of Enoch explains
that a group of rebellious angels "left their first
estate" (heaven, or the sky) and came down (fell) to
Earth to marry human women and have children with them.
Jude makes mention of these angels in the New Testament:
Jude 1:6 And the angels which kept not their first estate,
but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting
chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.
Due to the disastrous results of this forbidden intermingling,
many have come to view the word "fallen" as denoting
a fall from grace, though it seems that the original meaning
was simply to descend from the heavens.
The distinction of good and bad angels constantly appears
in the Bible, but it is instructive to note that there is
no sign of any dualism or conflict between two equal principles,
one good and the other evil. The conflict depicted is rather
that waged on earth between the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom
of the Evil One, but the latter's inferiority is always
supposed. The existence, then, of this inferior, and therefore
created, spirit, has to be explained.
The gradual development of Hebrew language consciousness
on this point is very clearly marked in the inspired writings.
The account of the fall of the First Parents (Genesis 3)
is couched in such terms that it is difficult to see in
it anything more than the acknowledgment of the existence
of a principle of evil who was jealous of the human race.
The statement (Genesis 6:1) that the "Sons of God"
married the daughters of men is explained of the fall of
the angels, in Enoch 6-9, and codices, D, E F, and A of
the Septuagint read frequently, for "sons of God",
oi aggeloi tou theou. Unfortunately, codices B and C are
defective in Ge., vi, but it is probably that they, too,
read oi aggeloi in this passage, for they constantly so
render the expression "sons of God"; cf. Job 1:6,
2:1, 38:7; but on the other hand, see Psalms 2:1; 85; &
(Septuagint). Philo, in commenting on the passage in his
treatise "Quod Deus sit immutabilis", i, follows
the Septuagint. For Philo's doctrine of Angels, cf. "De
Vita Mosis", iii, 2, "De Somniis", VI: "De
Incorrupta Manna", i; "De Sacrificis", ii;
"De Lege Allegorica", I, 12; III, 73; and for
the view of Genesis 6:1, cf. St. Justin, Apol., ii 5.
The picture afforded us in Job 1-2 is equally imaginative;
but Satan, perhaps the earliest individualization of the
[a] fallen Angel, is presented as an intruder who is jealous
of Job. He can be seen as clearly an inferior being to the
Deity and can only touch Job with God's permission, or as
the ultimate embodiment of pride, as per his believed characteristics,
trying to prove God's summation of Job's character and faith
is flawed. By playing within the limitations God himself
has set Satan affords himself the opportunity to cause Job
to curse the Lord and there-by, in affect, prove God wrong
in order to prove himself to be correct, and therefore superior
to God. How theological thought advanced as the sum of revelation
grew appears from a comparison of II Kings 24:1, with I
Paral., xxi, 1.
Whereas in the former passage David's sin was said to be
due to "the wrath of the Lord" which "stirred
up David", in the latter we read that "Satan moved
David to number Israel". In Job. iv, 18, we seem to
find a definite declaration of the fall: "In His angels
He found wickedness." The Septuagint of Job contains
some instructive passages regarding avenging angels in whom
we are perhaps to see fallen spirits, thus xxxiii, 23: "If
a thousand death-dealing angels should be (against him)
not one of them shall wound him"; and xxxvi, 14: "If
their souls should perish in their youth (through rashness)
yet their life shall be wounded by the angels"; and
xxi, 15: "The riches unjustly accumulated shall be
vomited up, an angel shall drag him out of his house;"
cf. Prov., xvii, 11; Ps., xxxiv, 5, 6; lxxvii, 49, and especially,
Ecclesiasticus, xxxix, 33, a text which, as far as can be
gathered from the present state of the manuscript, was in
the Hebrew original.
In some of these passages, it is true, the angels may be
regarded as avengers of God's justice without therefore
being evil spirits. In Zach., iii, 1-3, Satan is called
the adversary who pleads before the Lord against Jesus the
High Priest. Isaias, xiv, and Ezech., xxviii, are for the
Fathers the loci classici regarding the fall of Satan (cf.
Tertull., adv. Marc., II, x); and Jesus Himself has given
colour to this view by using the imagery of the latter passage
when saying to His Apostles: "I saw Satan like lightning
falling from heaven" (Luke 10:18).
In New Testament times, the idea of the two spiritual kingdoms
is clearly established. The devil is a fallen angel who
in his fall has drawn multitudes of the heavenly host in
his train. Jesus terms him "the Prince of this world"
(John xiv, 30); he is the tempter of the human race and
tries to involve them in his fall (Matthew 25:41; 2 Peter
2:4; Ephesians 6:12; 2 Corinthians 11:14; 12:7). Christian
imagery of the devil as the dragon is mainly derived from
the Apocalypse (ix, 11-15; xii, 7-9), where he is termed
"the dragon", "the old serpent", etc.,
and is represented as having actually been in combat with
Archangel Michael. Also, an image is given him as a "roaring
lion seeking whom he may devour (as seen in II Peter)"
gives context, and substance of his role as the tempter
of the inhabitants of the earth. The similarity between
scenes such as these and the early Babylonian accounts of
the struggle between Merodach and the dragon Tiamat is very
striking. Whether we are to trace its origin to vague reminiscences
of the mighty saurians which once people the earth is a
moot question, but the curious reader may consult Bousett,
"The Anti-Christ Legend" (tr. by Keane, London,
1896). The translator has prefixed to it an interesting
discussion on the origin of the Babylonian Dragon-Myth.
Reasons for their fall
There are a number of different beliefs regarding the origins
and motivations of fallen angels. Many focus on issues of
free will, lust, pride, or the incomprehensibility of the
acts of God.
of free will
It is generally accepted by most Christians that the fallen
angels were cast out of Heaven because of actions taken
against God. These actions were enabled because the angels
were granted free will. Generally, these actions included
active rebellion, doubt in God's motives or plans, or a
rejection of the system of Heaven. Pride is often involved,
especially in cases where an angel believed itself to be
more powerful than God (Lucifer being the prime example
among these [this is often disputed]).
Origen, a father of the early Christian Church, believed
that God had created all angels to be equal and free. However,
in possessing the power of free will, some of them began
to move further away from God of their own volition.
Origen states metaphorically that, although some angels
fell and became human or demonic, all hope is not lost.
He theorizes that by practicing virtue, men and demons can
again become angels. While considered an early Father of
the Church, Origen was deemed a heretic as a result of some
of his writings and teachings, which did not conform to
accepted scripture or tradition. Mainly, his concept of
Apocatastasis, the belief that all beings (human beings,
fallen angels, demons, and Satan) will return to God through
God's love and mercy, was deemed unacceptable at that time.
His excommunication was posthumously reversed.
The following comes from a series of ancient texts referenced
in the Bible called "The Three Books of Enoch",
a set of books found in the Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament.
According to these books, it is because of lust that some
angels fell from Heaven. God asked the "Watchers"
(Grigori), a select group of angels, to assist the Archangels
in the creation of Eden. Those Grigori who descended to
Earth saw the daughters of men and became enchanted with
them. Consequently, the Grigori began to reveal to man some
of the secrets of Heaven, such as astrology and the vanity
of enhancing the face and body with perfumes and cosmetics.
The Grigori then fell in love with human women. According
to the text, some of the Grigori even took wives and created
offspring, giants known as the Nephilim. This made God so
angry that he cursed those Grigori who had betrayed Him,
threw them out of Heaven, made them mortal and transformed
them into demons. God sent the Great Flood to cleanse the
Earth of the wanton killing and destruction perpetrated
by the Nephilim. Notable
angels who fell in this account are Semyazza, Samael, Azazel,
This belief involves Lucifer's revolution against God, well
known amongst Christians. Pride, the gravest of the seven
deadly sins, eventually led to the expulsion from Heaven
of certain beings, up to and including the highest orders
of angels. Lucifer, who himself succumbed to pride, was
the first and mightiest angel to be created. With intelligence,
radiance, beauty, and power unmatched among all of the angels
in Heaven, Lucifer was second in majesty only to God Himself.
Unfortunately, Lucifer became ambitious and self-centered,
eventually deciding to prove his power by raising his throne
to the height of God's throne. Other angels did not approve
of Lucifer's plan; they did not want a lower being trying
symbolically to become the equal of God. When Lucifer enacted
his scheme, he was instantly hurled out of Heaven. This
account of the rebellion might have come from several ancient
Canaanite manuscripts that deal with Shahar, one of their
Catholic theologians have speculated that the incarnation
of Christ was revealed to the angels. The idea that all
of Heaven must bow before Christ, formed in part from the
lesser nature of humanity, motivated the prideful actions
of Lucifer (cf. Suarez, De Angelis, lib. VII, xiii).
According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Angels
were all created good but some turned bad on their own.
Angels don't need faith as they already have the knowledge
of celestial things. Due to their angelic nature, repentance
is not possible and their sins are irreversible.
Venerable Sor María de Jesús de Agreda (1602-1665+),
expressed in a book titled "La Mistica Ciudad de Dios"
what is the modern common Catholic interpretation. In the
beginning of times, when God separated daylight from darkness,
He also separated the good from the bad in the Heavens:
God revealed his Trinitary nature to the Angels, He also
showed them He would incarnate and all the Angels were to
revere and adore Him as God and human.
Lucifer was the first angel to rebel against God (Isaiah
14) and with him he took one third of the the celestial
host. Lucifer was the most beautiful angel, so beautiful
indeed that he envied God and wanted to receive all His
praises: he didn't accept the idea of bowing before Jesus
and hated being inferior to any human, including His Holy
Mother. As a punishment God didn't remove the powers from
the Devil but decided to punish and humiliate him by stating
that through His Holy Mother, which he failed to respect
and praise, his head would be crushed and he would be defeated
Then came the battle related by Saint John (Apoc. 12) between
St. Michael the Archangel and His Angels, and Lucifer and
According to the Qur’an, when God created man, He
wanted His angels and Iblis to acknowledge man by bowing
down to him, but Iblis did not obey His mandate. Islam does
not hold Iblis to be a fallen angel because it maintains
that Iblis is one among many of Allah's creations, and that
Iblis is made out of fire as are the Jinn. These Jinns are
divided into two groups, one being that which follows the
Islamic teachings, the other which follows Iblis.
We created you and then formed you and then We said to the
Angels, "Prostrate before Adam" and they prostrated
except for Iblis. He was not among those who prostrated.
God said, "What prevented you from prostrating when
I commanded you?" He (iblis) replied, "I am better
than him. You created me from fire and You created him from
clay". God said, "Descend from heaven. It is not
for you to be arrogant in it. So get out! You are one of
the abased." Surah 7 (al-A`raf), 11-13.
A later mention of this idea can be found in "Vita
Adae et Evae", an apocryphal text which most scholars
agree was written somewhere near the end of the 10th century
XIII: The devil replied, 'Adam, what dost thou tell me?
It is for thy sake that I have been hurled from that place.
When thou wast formed, I was hurled out of the presence
of God and banished from the company of the angels. When
God blew into thee the breath of life and thy face and likeness
was made in the image of God, Michael also brought thee
and made (us) worship thee in the sight of God; and God
the Lord spake: Here is Adam. I have made thee in our image
XIV: And Michael went out and called all the angels saying:
'Worship the image of God as the Lord God hath commanded.'
And Michael himself worshipped first; then he called me
and said: 'Worship the image of God the Lord.' And I answered,
'I have no (need) to worship Adam.' And since Michael kept
urging me to worship, I said to him, 'Why dost thou urge
me? I will not worship an inferior and younger being. I
am his senior in the Creation, before he was made was I
already made. It is his duty to worship me.'
XV: When the angels who were under me heard this, they refused
to worship him. And Michael saith, 'Worship the image of
God, but if thou wilt not worship him, the Lord God will
be wroth with thee.' And I said, 'If He be wroth with me,
I will set my seat above the stars of heaven and will be
like the Highest.'
Anon. Vita Adae et Evae, 13–15.
There is a Sufi version of the story that states that Lucifer
was the angel who loved God the most. At the time of the
angels' creation, God told them to bow to no one but Him.
However, God created mankind, whom he considered superior
to the angels, and commanded the angels to bow before the
new figure. Lucifer refused, partly because he could not
forget the first commandment, but also because he would
bow to his beloved God only. The other angels saw Lucifer
as insubordinate, and expelled him from Heaven.
Those who believe in this version do not consider Lucifer
or the fallen angels to be demons, since they did not rebel
against God by refusing his mandate, but rather believed
that creatures should bow before only God, and no one else.
Some people believe that the Seraphim (Lucifer, Belial,
Leviathan and Satan) were the only Fallen Angels, and those
who believed and joined their cause became the first demons.
angels by rank
Some of the fallen were supposedly members of
more than one rank, but this list will only list the primary
rank, or the rank that is most well-known, of each apostate
angel. For more information, see the articles of the various
[A listing of 44 angels]
The following list of 100 Fallen Angels has been taken
from A Dictionary of Angels, including the Fallen Angels:
They are listed alphabetically, not in order of importance.
1. Abbadona (once of the order of seraphim)
2. Adramelec [Archangels]
3. Agares (Agreas) [Virtues]
4. Amezyarak (Amiziras; also alternate for Semyaza)
5. Amy (one partly of the order of powers and partly of
the order of angels)
6. Anmael (identified with Semyaza)
7. Arakiel (Araqiel)
9. Ariel (once of the order of virtues)
10. Arioc(h) [Arioch]
11. Armaros (Abaros, Armers, Pharmaros)
13. Artaqifa (Arakiba)
16. Asmodeus (Sammael) [once of the order of seraphim]
17. Astaroth (once of the order of seraphim and of thrones)
18. Astoreth (Astarte) [Angels]
19. Atarculph [Atarculphegh?]
20. Auza (Oza)
22. Azazel (once of the order of cherubim)
24. Azzael (Asael)
25. Balam (once of the order of dominations)
26. Baraqel (Barakel, Baraqijal)
27. Barbatos (once of the order of virtues)
28. Barbiel (once of the order of virtues)
30. Beelzebub (once of the order of cherubim)
31. Beliar (Belial) [once partly of the order of virtues
and partly of the order of angels]
33. Byleth (Beleth) [once of the order of powers)
34. Balberith (once of the order of cherubim)
35. Caim (Caym) [once of the order of angels]
36. Carnivean (once of the order of powers)
37. Carreau (once of the order of powers)
38. Dagon [Archangels]
40. Ezekeel (Ezequeel)
41. Flauros (Hauras)
42. Gaap (once of the order of potentates) [Powers]
44. Gressil (once of the order of thrones)
46. Hananel (Ananel)
47. Harut (Persian)
48. Iblis (Eblis, Haris) (Mohammedan Satan) [According to
the Qur’an Iblis is a Jinn not an Angel]
49. Ielahih (once of the order of virtues)
50. Invart (once of the order of angels)
54. Lauiah (Lauviah) (once partly of the order of thrones
and partly of the order of cherubim)
55. Leviathan (once of the order of seraphim)
56. Lucifer (often, but erroneously, identified as Satan)
57. Mammon [Thrones]
58. Marchosias (once of the order of dominations)
59. Marut (Persian)
60. Mephistopheles [Archangel]
62. Moloch (Moloc) [Archangel]
64. Murmur (once partly of the order of thrones and partly
of the order of angels
65. Nelchael (once of the order of thrones)
66. Nilaihah (once of the order of dominations)
67. Oeillet (once of the order of dominations)
68. Olivier (once of the order of archangels)
69. Ouzza (Usiel)
70. Paimon (Paymon) (once of the order of dominations)
72. Procell (once of the order of powers)
73. Pursan (Curson) [once of the order of virtues]
74. Raum (Raym) [once of the order of thrones]
75. Rimmon [Archangel]
76. Rosier (once of the order of dominations)
77. Rumael (Ramiel or Remiel)
78. Sammael (Satan, Asmodeus)
83. Sealiah (once of the order of virtues)
84. Semyaza (Shemhazai, Azaziel) [once of the order of seraphim)
85. Senciner (once partly of the order of virtues and partly
of the order of powers) [Virtues]
88. Sonneillon (once of the order of thrones)
90. Thammuz [Archangel]
95. Usiel (Uzziel) [once of the order of virtues]
96. Verrier (once of the order of principalities)
97. Verrine (once of the order of thrones)
98. Vual (Vvall) [once of the order of powers]
Belphegor (Baal-Peor) [once of the order of principalities)
[ Of the above two lists of fallen angels Davidson’s
analysis, cross-referenced to the wikipedia list only confirms
69 angels. What can we deduce from this? Only that the listing
of fallen angels may contain many inaccuracies, concerning
the number who fell, the names of the angel who fell and
finally some deliberate error purported by the original
authors to support religious concepts at that time of publication]
Please note: additions between
[ ] have been added to the original text by the ArchAn editor.
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Gustav Davidson, A Dictionary
of Angels, including the Fallen Angels:
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