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The Fallen Angels
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In some Christian doctrines, a fallen angel is an angel that has been exiled or banished from Heaven [fallen being a a metaphor for "cast out" or ostracized. Not literally meaning the angels fell! ] . Often such banishment is a punishment for disobeying or rebelling against God. One early source for information on angelology and demonology is the Persian prophet Zoroaster. The best-known fallen angel is Lucifer. Lucifer rebelled and was cast out of Heaven and fell to Earth for his offense. According to some traditions, fallen angels will roam the Earth until Judgment Day, when they will be banished to Hell.

[According to Revelation 12, the rebel host aggregated one-third of the angels in heaven. They fell for 9 days. Their number was estimated in the 15th century to have been 133,306,668 (the tabulation of Cardinal Bishop of Tusculum). ]

Origin of the term
The origin of the term lies in the Hebrew word for "giant". The Hebrew word translated as "giants" here is Nephilim, a plural, which itself derives from the root word Naphal, which means to fall. The apocryphal Book of Enoch explains that a group of rebellious angels "left their first estate" (heaven, or the sky) and came down (fell) to Earth to marry human women and have children with them. Jude makes mention of these angels in the New Testament:

Jude 1:6 And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.

Due to the disastrous results of this forbidden intermingling, many have come to view the word "fallen" as denoting a fall from grace, though it seems that the original meaning was simply to descend from the heavens.

The distinction of good and bad angels constantly appears in the Bible, but it is instructive to note that there is no sign of any dualism or conflict between two equal principles, one good and the other evil. The conflict depicted is rather that waged on earth between the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of the Evil One, but the latter's inferiority is always supposed. The existence, then, of this inferior, and therefore created, spirit, has to be explained.

The gradual development of Hebrew language consciousness on this point is very clearly marked in the inspired writings. The account of the fall of the First Parents (Genesis 3) is couched in such terms that it is difficult to see in it anything more than the acknowledgment of the existence of a principle of evil who was jealous of the human race.

The statement (Genesis 6:1) that the "Sons of God" married the daughters of men is explained of the fall of the angels, in Enoch 6-9, and codices, D, E F, and A of the Septuagint read frequently, for "sons of God", oi aggeloi tou theou. Unfortunately, codices B and C are defective in Ge., vi, but it is probably that they, too, read oi aggeloi in this passage, for they constantly so render the expression "sons of God"; cf. Job 1:6, 2:1, 38:7; but on the other hand, see Psalms 2:1; 85; & (Septuagint). Philo, in commenting on the passage in his treatise "Quod Deus sit immutabilis", i, follows the Septuagint. For Philo's doctrine of Angels, cf. "De Vita Mosis", iii, 2, "De Somniis", VI: "De Incorrupta Manna", i; "De Sacrificis", ii; "De Lege Allegorica", I, 12; III, 73; and for the view of Genesis 6:1, cf. St. Justin, Apol., ii 5.
Job 1-2

The picture afforded us in Job 1-2 is equally imaginative; but Satan, perhaps the earliest individualization of the [a] fallen Angel, is presented as an intruder who is jealous of Job. He can be seen as clearly an inferior being to the Deity and can only touch Job with God's permission, or as the ultimate embodiment of pride, as per his believed characteristics, trying to prove God's summation of Job's character and faith is flawed. By playing within the limitations God himself has set Satan affords himself the opportunity to cause Job to curse the Lord and there-by, in affect, prove God wrong in order to prove himself to be correct, and therefore superior to God. How theological thought advanced as the sum of revelation grew appears from a comparison of II Kings 24:1, with I Paral., xxi, 1.

Whereas in the former passage David's sin was said to be due to "the wrath of the Lord" which "stirred up David", in the latter we read that "Satan moved David to number Israel". In Job. iv, 18, we seem to find a definite declaration of the fall: "In His angels He found wickedness." The Septuagint of Job contains some instructive passages regarding avenging angels in whom we are perhaps to see fallen spirits, thus xxxiii, 23: "If a thousand death-dealing angels should be (against him) not one of them shall wound him"; and xxxvi, 14: "If their souls should perish in their youth (through rashness) yet their life shall be wounded by the angels"; and xxi, 15: "The riches unjustly accumulated shall be vomited up, an angel shall drag him out of his house;" cf. Prov., xvii, 11; Ps., xxxiv, 5, 6; lxxvii, 49, and especially, Ecclesiasticus, xxxix, 33, a text which, as far as can be gathered from the present state of the manuscript, was in the Hebrew original.

In some of these passages, it is true, the angels may be regarded as avengers of God's justice without therefore being evil spirits. In Zach., iii, 1-3, Satan is called the adversary who pleads before the Lord against Jesus the High Priest. Isaias, xiv, and Ezech., xxviii, are for the Fathers the loci classici regarding the fall of Satan (cf. Tertull., adv. Marc., II, x); and Jesus Himself has given colour to this view by using the imagery of the latter passage when saying to His Apostles: "I saw Satan like lightning falling from heaven" (Luke 10:18).

New Testament
In New Testament times, the idea of the two spiritual kingdoms is clearly established. The devil is a fallen angel who in his fall has drawn multitudes of the heavenly host in his train. Jesus terms him "the Prince of this world" (John xiv, 30); he is the tempter of the human race and tries to involve them in his fall (Matthew 25:41; 2 Peter 2:4; Ephesians 6:12; 2 Corinthians 11:14; 12:7). Christian imagery of the devil as the dragon is mainly derived from the Apocalypse (ix, 11-15; xii, 7-9), where he is termed "the dragon", "the old serpent", etc., and is represented as having actually been in combat with Archangel Michael. Also, an image is given him as a "roaring lion seeking whom he may devour (as seen in II Peter)" gives context, and substance of his role as the tempter of the inhabitants of the earth. The similarity between scenes such as these and the early Babylonian accounts of the struggle between Merodach and the dragon Tiamat is very striking. Whether we are to trace its origin to vague reminiscences of the mighty saurians which once people the earth is a moot question, but the curious reader may consult Bousett, "The Anti-Christ Legend" (tr. by Keane, London, 1896). The translator has prefixed to it an interesting discussion on the origin of the Babylonian Dragon-Myth.
Reasons for their fall

There are a number of different beliefs regarding the origins and motivations of fallen angels. Many focus on issues of free will, lust, pride, or the incomprehensibility of the acts of God.

Consequences of free will
It is generally accepted by most Christians that the fallen angels were cast out of Heaven because of actions taken against God. These actions were enabled because the angels were granted free will. Generally, these actions included active rebellion, doubt in God's motives or plans, or a rejection of the system of Heaven. Pride is often involved, especially in cases where an angel believed itself to be more powerful than God (Lucifer being the prime example among these [this is often disputed]).
Origen

Origen, a father of the early Christian Church, believed that God had created all angels to be equal and free. However, in possessing the power of free will, some of them began to move further away from God of their own volition.

Origen states metaphorically that, although some angels fell and became human or demonic, all hope is not lost. He theorizes that by practicing virtue, men and demons can again become angels. While considered an early Father of the Church, Origen was deemed a heretic as a result of some of his writings and teachings, which did not conform to accepted scripture or tradition. Mainly, his concept of Apocatastasis, the belief that all beings (human beings, fallen angels, demons, and Satan) will return to God through God's love and mercy, was deemed unacceptable at that time. His excommunication was posthumously reversed.

Lust
The following comes from a series of ancient texts referenced in the Bible called "The Three Books of Enoch", a set of books found in the Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament.

According to these books, it is because of lust that some angels fell from Heaven. God asked the "Watchers" (Grigori), a select group of angels, to assist the Archangels in the creation of Eden. Those Grigori who descended to Earth saw the daughters of men and became enchanted with them. Consequently, the Grigori began to reveal to man some of the secrets of Heaven, such as astrology and the vanity of enhancing the face and body with perfumes and cosmetics. The Grigori then fell in love with human women. According to the text, some of the Grigori even took wives and created offspring, giants known as the Nephilim. This made God so angry that he cursed those Grigori who had betrayed Him, threw them out of Heaven, made them mortal and transformed them into demons. God sent the Great Flood to cleanse the Earth of the wanton killing and destruction perpetrated by the Nephilim. Notable angels who fell in this account are Semyazza, Samael, Azazel, and Lucifer.

Pride
This belief involves Lucifer's revolution against God, well known amongst Christians. Pride, the gravest of the seven deadly sins, eventually led to the expulsion from Heaven of certain beings, up to and including the highest orders of angels. Lucifer, who himself succumbed to pride, was the first and mightiest angel to be created. With intelligence, radiance, beauty, and power unmatched among all of the angels in Heaven, Lucifer was second in majesty only to God Himself.

Unfortunately, Lucifer became ambitious and self-centered, eventually deciding to prove his power by raising his throne to the height of God's throne. Other angels did not approve of Lucifer's plan; they did not want a lower being trying symbolically to become the equal of God. When Lucifer enacted his scheme, he was instantly hurled out of Heaven. This account of the rebellion might have come from several ancient Canaanite manuscripts that deal with Shahar, one of their own deities.
Catholic theologians have speculated that the incarnation of Christ was revealed to the angels. The idea that all of Heaven must bow before Christ, formed in part from the lesser nature of humanity, motivated the prideful actions of Lucifer (cf. Suarez, De Angelis, lib. VII, xiii).

Modern Catholic view
According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Angels were all created good but some turned bad on their own. Angels don't need faith as they already have the knowledge of celestial things. Due to their angelic nature, repentance is not possible and their sins are irreversible.

Venerable Sor María de Jesús de Agreda (1602-1665+), expressed in a book titled "La Mistica Ciudad de Dios" what is the modern common Catholic interpretation. In the beginning of times, when God separated daylight from darkness, He also separated the good from the bad in the Heavens: God revealed his Trinitary nature to the Angels, He also showed them He would incarnate and all the Angels were to revere and adore Him as God and human.

Lucifer was the first angel to rebel against God (Isaiah 14) and with him he took one third of the the celestial host. Lucifer was the most beautiful angel, so beautiful indeed that he envied God and wanted to receive all His praises: he didn't accept the idea of bowing before Jesus and hated being inferior to any human, including His Holy Mother. As a punishment God didn't remove the powers from the Devil but decided to punish and humiliate him by stating that through His Holy Mother, which he failed to respect and praise, his head would be crushed and he would be defeated and anihilated.
Then came the battle related by Saint John (Apoc. 12) between St. Michael the Archangel and His Angels, and Lucifer and his angels.

Bowing to mankind
According to the Qur’an, when God created man, He wanted His angels and Iblis to acknowledge man by bowing down to him, but Iblis did not obey His mandate. Islam does not hold Iblis to be a fallen angel because it maintains that Iblis is one among many of Allah's creations, and that Iblis is made out of fire as are the Jinn. These Jinns are divided into two groups, one being that which follows the Islamic teachings, the other which follows Iblis.

We created you and then formed you and then We said to the Angels, "Prostrate before Adam" and they prostrated except for Iblis. He was not among those who prostrated. God said, "What prevented you from prostrating when I commanded you?" He (iblis) replied, "I am better than him. You created me from fire and You created him from clay". God said, "Descend from heaven. It is not for you to be arrogant in it. So get out! You are one of the abased." Surah 7 (al-A`raf), 11-13.

A later mention of this idea can be found in "Vita Adae et Evae", an apocryphal text which most scholars agree was written somewhere near the end of the 10th century AD.

XIII: The devil replied, 'Adam, what dost thou tell me? It is for thy sake that I have been hurled from that place. When thou wast formed, I was hurled out of the presence of God and banished from the company of the angels. When God blew into thee the breath of life and thy face and likeness was made in the image of God, Michael also brought thee and made (us) worship thee in the sight of God; and God the Lord spake: Here is Adam. I have made thee in our image and likeness.'

XIV: And Michael went out and called all the angels saying: 'Worship the image of God as the Lord God hath commanded.' And Michael himself worshipped first; then he called me and said: 'Worship the image of God the Lord.' And I answered, 'I have no (need) to worship Adam.' And since Michael kept urging me to worship, I said to him, 'Why dost thou urge me? I will not worship an inferior and younger being. I am his senior in the Creation, before he was made was I already made. It is his duty to worship me.'

XV: When the angels who were under me heard this, they refused to worship him. And Michael saith, 'Worship the image of God, but if thou wilt not worship him, the Lord God will be wroth with thee.' And I said, 'If He be wroth with me, I will set my seat above the stars of heaven and will be like the Highest.'
Anon. Vita Adae et Evae, 13–15.

Obedience to God
There is a Sufi version of the story that states that Lucifer was the angel who loved God the most. At the time of the angels' creation, God told them to bow to no one but Him.
However, God created mankind, whom he considered superior to the angels, and commanded the angels to bow before the new figure. Lucifer refused, partly because he could not forget the first commandment, but also because he would bow to his beloved God only. The other angels saw Lucifer as insubordinate, and expelled him from Heaven.

Those who believe in this version do not consider Lucifer or the fallen angels to be demons, since they did not rebel against God by refusing his mandate, but rather believed that creatures should bow before only God, and no one else.

Some people believe that the Seraphim (Lucifer, Belial, Leviathan and Satan) were the only Fallen Angels, and those who believed and joined their cause became the first demons.

Fallen angels by rank
Some of the fallen were supposedly members of more than one rank, but this list will only list the primary rank, or the rank that is most well-known, of each apostate angel. For more information, see the articles of the various entities.

First Sphere

Seraphim

Cherubim

Thrones

  • Lucifer
  • Satan
  • Leviathan
  • Belial
  • Azazel
  • Beelzebub
  • Berith
  • Lauviah
  • Marou
  • Salikotal
  • Focalor
  • Forneus
  • Gressil
  • Mammon
  • Murmur
  • Nelchael
  • Phenex
  • Purson
  • Raum
  • Sonneillon
  • Sytri
  • Verrine

Second Sphere

Dominions

Virtues

Powers

  • Balam
  • Marchosias
  • Nilaihah
  • Oeillet
  • Paimon
  • Rosier
  • Agares
  • Ariel
  • Barbatos
  • Belial
  • Lelaliah
  • Purson
  • Sealiah
  • Senciner
  • Uzziel
  • Amy
  • Beleth
  • Carnivean
  • Carreau
  • Crocell
  • Gaap
  • Lehahiah
  • Uvall

Third Sphere

Principalities

Archangels

Angels

  • Belphegor
  • Imamiah
  • Ian
  • Nisroch
  • Nithael
  • Verrier
  • Adramelech
  • Ananael
  • Basasael
  • Dagon
  • Mephistopheles
  • Moloch
  • Rimmon
  • Rumjal
  • Sarfael
  • Thammuz
  • Zagiel
  • Arakiba
  • Arakiel
  • Araxiel
  • Arioch
  • Armans
  • Asael
  • Asbeel
  • Astoreth
  • Caim
  • Iuvart


Others:
• Abigor
• Adirael
• Aldebaran
• Amazarak
• Anane
• Antares
• Armers/Armaros
• Asbeel
• Atarculphegh
• Asael/Azazel
• Azaradel
• Akibeel/Azibeel
• Azkeel
• Azza
• Badariel
• Baraqel
• Batarel
• Batraal/Batarjal
• Busasejal
• Chobaliel
• Danel/Daniel
• Ertael/Ertrael
• Exael
• Ezequeel
• Fomalhaut
• Gadreel/Gadriel
• Gurson
• Hakael
• Hananel
• Haures
• Hosampsich
• Iomuel
• Jeqon
• Jetrel
• Jove
• Kasdaye
• Kasbeel
• Kathazel
• Kokabel
• Meresin
• Mulciber
• Naamah
• Nithael
• Omiel
• Orus
• Penemue
• Ramuel
• Regent
• Regulus
• Rugziel
• Rumjal
• Samathael
• Sameveel
• Samsaveel
• Saraknyal
• Sariel
• Seriel
• Shaftiel
• Simapesiel
• Tabaet
• Tamiel
• Temeluchus
• Thausael
• Tiril
• Tumael
• Turael
• Urakabarameel
• Uzza
• Xaphan
• Yomyael
• Zavebe
[A listing of 44 angels]

The following list of 100 Fallen Angels has been taken from A Dictionary of Angels, including the Fallen Angels: Gustav Davidson.

They are listed alphabetically, not in order of importance.

1. Abbadona (once of the order of seraphim)
2. Adramelec [Archangels]
3. Agares (Agreas) [Virtues]
4. Amezyarak (Amiziras; also alternate for Semyaza)
5. Amy (one partly of the order of powers and partly of the order of angels)
6. Anmael (identified with Semyaza)
7. Arakiel (Araqiel)
8. Araziel
9. Ariel (once of the order of virtues)
10. Arioc(h) [Arioch]
11. Armaros (Abaros, Armers, Pharmaros)
12. Armen
13. Artaqifa (Arakiba)
14. Asbeel
15. Asmoday
16. Asmodeus (Sammael) [once of the order of seraphim]
17. Astaroth (once of the order of seraphim and of thrones) [Angels]
18. Astoreth (Astarte) [Angels]
19. Atarculph [Atarculphegh?]
20. Auza (Oza)
21. Azaradel
22. Azazel (once of the order of cherubim)
23. Azza
24. Azzael (Asael)
25. Balam (once of the order of dominations)
26. Baraqel (Barakel, Baraqijal)
27. Barbatos (once of the order of virtues)
28. Barbiel (once of the order of virtues)
29. Batarjal
30. Beelzebub (once of the order of cherubim)
31. Beliar (Belial) [once partly of the order of virtues and partly of the order of angels]
32. Busasejal
33. Byleth (Beleth) [once of the order of powers)
34. Balberith (once of the order of cherubim)
35. Caim (Caym) [once of the order of angels]
36. Carnivean (once of the order of powers)
37. Carreau (once of the order of powers)
38. Dagon [Archangels]
39. Danjal
40. Ezekeel (Ezequeel)
41. Flauros (Hauras)
42. Gaap (once of the order of potentates) [Powers]
43. Gadreel
44. Gressil (once of the order of thrones)
45. Hakael
46. Hananel (Ananel)
47. Harut (Persian)
48. Iblis (Eblis, Haris) (Mohammedan Satan) [According to the Qur’an Iblis is a Jinn not an Angel]
49. Ielahih (once of the order of virtues)
50. Invart (once of the order of angels)
51. Jeqon
52. Jetrel
53. Kasdeja
54. Lauiah (Lauviah) (once partly of the order of thrones and partly of the order of cherubim)
55. Leviathan (once of the order of seraphim)
56. Lucifer (often, but erroneously, identified as Satan)
57. Mammon [Thrones]
58. Marchosias (once of the order of dominations)
59. Marut (Persian)
60. Mephistopheles [Archangel]
61. Meresin
62. Moloch (Moloc) [Archangel]
63. Mulciber
64. Murmur (once partly of the order of thrones and partly of the order of angels
65. Nelchael (once of the order of thrones)
66. Nilaihah (once of the order of dominations)
67. Oeillet (once of the order of dominations)
68. Olivier (once of the order of archangels)
69. Ouzza (Usiel)
70. Paimon (Paymon) (once of the order of dominations)
71. Penemue
72. Procell (once of the order of powers)
73. Pursan (Curson) [once of the order of virtues]
74. Raum (Raym) [once of the order of thrones]
75. Rimmon [Archangel]
76. Rosier (once of the order of dominations)
77. Rumael (Ramiel or Remiel)
78. Sammael (Satan, Asmodeus)
79. Samsaweel
80. Saraknyal
81. Sariel
82. Satan
83. Sealiah (once of the order of virtues)
84. Semyaza (Shemhazai, Azaziel) [once of the order of seraphim)
85. Senciner (once partly of the order of virtues and partly of the order of powers) [Virtues]
86. Shamshiel
87. Simapesiel
88. Sonneillon (once of the order of thrones)
89. Tabaet
90. Thammuz [Archangel]
91. Tumael
92. Turael
93. Turel
94. Urakbarameel
95. Usiel (Uzziel) [once of the order of virtues]
96. Verrier (once of the order of principalities)
97. Verrine (once of the order of thrones)
98. Vual (Vvall) [once of the order of powers]
99. Yomyael
100. Zavebe
also
Belphegor (Baal-Peor) [once of the order of principalities)

[ Of the above two lists of fallen angels Davidson’s analysis, cross-referenced to the wikipedia list only confirms 69 angels. What can we deduce from this? Only that the listing of fallen angels may contain many inaccuracies, concerning the number who fell, the names of the angel who fell and finally some deliberate error purported by the original authors to support religious concepts at that time of publication]

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References:

Gustav Davidson, A Dictionary of Angels, including the Fallen Angels:

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